Wednesday, November 29, 2006

New Zealand

New Zealand is one of the most recently settled major land masses. Polynesian settlers arrived in their waka some time between the 11th century and the 13th century to establish the indigenous Māori culture. New Zealand's Māori name, Aotearoa, is usually translated as "Land of the long white cloud", reputedly referring to the cloud the explorers saw on the horizon as they approached. Settlement of the Chatham Islands to the east of the mainland produced the Moriori people; linguistic evidence, in particular the innovations uniquely shared by the Moriori and Māori languages, indicates that they moved there from New Zealand. Most of New Zealand was divided into tribal territories called rohe, resources within which were controlled by hapū ('subtribes'). Māori adapted their tropically-based culture to eating the local marine resources, flora and fauna for food. They also hunted the giant flightless moa (which soon became extinct). They showed great ingenuity in adapting their tropical agricultural technology to a temperate climate, successfully cultivating taro, gourds, kumara (sweet potato), and other plants which they introduced from Polynesia; it is thought that kūmara were grown as far south as Banks Peninsula in the middle of the South Island. While it was fairly easy to grow these crops in the north, these warm-climate crops were impractical in the south of the South Island. However, inter-regional trade and the exploitation of the few food plants of the local flora made up the difference. They also introduced other plants such as the paper mulberry or 'aute', used to make barkcloth for kites and for personal adornment.

The first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were led by Abel Janszoon Tasman, who sailed up the west coasts of the South and North Islands in 1642. He named it Staten Landt, believing it to be part of the land Jacob Le Maire had seen in 1616 off the coast of Chile. Staten Landt appeared on Tasman's first maps of New Zealand, but this was changed by Dutch cartographers to Nova Zeelandia, after the Dutch province of Zeeland, some time after Hendrik Brouwer proved the supposedly South American land to be an island in 1643. The Latin Nova Zeelandia became Nieuw Zeeland in Dutch. Captain James Cook subsequently called the archipelago New Zealand (a slight corruption, as Zealand is not an alternative spelling of Zeeland, a province in the Netherlands, but of Sjælland, the island in Denmark that includes Copenhagen), although the Māori names he recorded for the North and South Islands (as Aehei No Mouwe and Tovy Poenammu respectively) were rejected, and the main three islands became known as North, Middle and South, with the Middle Island being later called the South Island, and the earlier South Island becoming Stewart Island. Cook began extensive surveys of the islands in 1769, leading to European whaling expeditions and eventually significant European colonisation. From as early as the 1780s, Māori had encounters with European sealers and whalers. Acquisition of muskets by those iwi in close contact with European visitors destabilised the existing balance of power between Māori tribes and there was a temporary but intense period of bloody inter-tribal warfare, known as the Musket Wars, which ceased only when all iwi were so armed.

Signing of the Treaty of WaitangiConcerned about the exploitation of Māori by Europeans, the British Colonial Office appointed James Busby as British Resident to New Zealand in 1832. In 1834, Busby convened the United Tribes of New Zealand to select a flag and declare their independence, which led to the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand. This declaration did not allay the fears of the Church Missionary Society, who continued lobbying for British annexation. Increasing French interest in the region led the British to annex New Zealand by Royal Proclamation in January 1840. To legitimise the British annexation, Lieutenant Governor William Hobson had been dispatched in 1839; he hurriedly negotiated the Treaty of Waitangi with northern iwi on his arrival. The Treaty was signed in February, and in recent years it has come to be seen as the founding document of New Zealand. The Māori translation of the treaty promised the Māori tribes "tino rangatiratanga" would be preserved in return for ceding kawanatanga, which the English version translates as "chieftainship" and "sovereignty"; the real meanings are now disputed. Disputes over land sales and sovereignty caused the New Zealand land wars, which took place between 1845 and 1872. In 1975 the Treaty of Waitangi Act established the Waitangi Tribunal, charged with hearing claims of Crown violations of the Treaty of Waitangi. Some Māori tribes and the Moriori never signed the treaty.

A controversial incident during the land warsNew Zealand was initially administered as a part of the colony of New South Wales, and it became a separate colony in November 1840. The first capital was Okiato or old Russell in the Bay of Islands but it soon moved to Auckland. European settlement progressed more rapidly than anyone anticipated, and settlers soon outnumbered Māori. Self-government was granted to the settler population in 1852. There were political concerns following the discovery of gold in Central Otago in 1861 that the South Island would form a separate colony, so in 1865 the capital was moved to the more central Wellington. New Zealand was involved in a Constitutional Convention in March 1891 in Sydney, New South Wales, along with the Australian colonies. This was to consider a potential constitution for the proposed federation between all the Australasian colonies. New Zealand lost interest in joining Australia in a federation following this convention.

In 1893 New Zealand became the first nation to grant women the right to vote on the same basis as men; however, women were not eligible to stand for parliament until 1919.

New Zealand became an independent dominion on 26 September 1907, by Royal Proclamation. Full independence was granted by the United Kingdom Parliament with the Statute of Westminster in 1931; it was taken up upon the Statute's adoption by the New Zealand Parliament in 1947. Since then New Zealand has been a sovereign constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth of Nations.

New Zealand was one of the first to join the Allies when it declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, along with France, the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada after the invasion of Poland. New Zealand troops fought in North Africa, Greece, Crete, Italy and in the Pacific. The navy and airforce were also involved.

In 1951, Australia, New Zealand and the United States formally became allies with the signing of the ANZUS Treaty. In 1985, New Zealand declared itself a nuclear-free zone. As a result, US warships could no longer enter New Zealand ports without declaring themselves to be free of nuclear weapons or power. As such a declaration would be against US Government policy, effectively the ships were banned from New Zealand. The United States suspended its obligations to New Zealand under the ANZUS Treaty.

Saturday, August 26, 2006

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich and he began his schooling there at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree.During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton*. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945.After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance.At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light.In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics.In the 1920's, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and relativistic cosmology.After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists.Einstein's researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important.Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920's he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935.Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey.
From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967

Wednesday, June 01, 2005



Phone card online

Phone Cards

Phone cards
IP-telephony phone cards experience great popularity all over the world.
And it is not surprising, the newest information technologies offer Internet-users opportunities unattainable in the past.
IP-telephony is the most modern technology, that provides an alternative way of low tariff long-distance and international telecommunication by means of the Internet.
The use of Internet reduces the price of telecommunication multiple times!
How to call using IP-telephony?
You buy a virtual phone card on the Internet. The virtual phone card works the same way as a real phone card, but You receive a PIN-code — not a real card.
To use the card You dial specially assigned Access number, enter card’s PIN number after a prompt, and then dial the destination number.
This service contributes large savings and is especially important for firms and private individuals who frequently make long distance and international phone calls.
For example, one minute of usual phone conversation between USA and France costs 50 cents; with phone cards' use it costs 2.30 cents. Therefore you save up near 4.8 US dollars for each ten-minute conversation. Savings are significant, aren' they!
How to earn with IP-telephony?
As the question of savings is important for all peoples, IP-telephony becomes a very attractive direction for improving profits.
Within the framework of Affiliate Program company suggests it’s partners to participate in two Programs: “The Referral Program” and “Own Shop” as well.
Using already designed templates You create your own phone cards Internet shop and receive 10% to 20% from each sale.
What kinds of telephone cards does “Master-Bell” offer? offers a variety of high quality prepaid phone cards that can be used all over the world for domestic and Long Distance calls.
There are rechargeable and non-rechargeable phone cards, Permanent PIN phone cards with PIN Free Access feature; cards with limited expiration period and unlimited use.
Detailed information about telephone cards can be found on i-telcards phone cards.
Who are IP-telephony phone cards major buyers?
It is very important to understand which Internet users are most interested in IP-telephony services. IP-telephony cards are used for calls from different countries, but the majority of customers are residents of the United States of America (97%) and Canada (2%).
As a rule, residents of these two countries not only have an access to the Internet, but also use it actively to make purchases from Internet-shops.
Immigrants, students, tourists and visitors use long-distance communication for business or personal contact most frequently